Two security experts have discovered a way to inject false messages – some amusing and others potentially frightening - into car satellite navigation systems.
Andrea Barisani, chief security engineer for Inverse Path and Daniele Bianco, a hardware hacker at Inverse Path, used off the shelf equipment to transmit messages to their car satellite navigation system warning of conditions ranging from foggy weather to terrorist attacks. They presented their findings at CanSecWest a security conference taking place this week in Vancouver.
Barisani and Bianco sent the messages over Radio Data System (RDS), a standard created in Europe but also used in North America that allows FM radio stations to transmit data over a sliver of spectrum that runs along every FM channel. RDS can contain information such as the name of the radio station. It can also transmit traffic information.
Over the past couple of years, satellite navigation systems have begun receiving that data so that users are alerted to traffic or weather conditions, Barisani said.
Barisani and Bianco found that they could build a device that transmits over the RDS channel. Through trial and error, they discovered that transmitting certain code numbers translates into certain warnings that are displayed on the satellite navigation system.
Some were amusing. One code number alerts users that there is a bull fight in progress. Another one indicates delays due to a parade.
But some were not so funny. One tells users that there has been a terrorist incident. Another indicates a bomb alert and another an air crash.
The researchers demonstrated this capability in order to spread awareness that this type of hack could happen maliciously. Barisani advises satellite navigation users that if they ever see an alarming message on their device, "don't freak out immediately, listen to the news on the radio to get confirmation".
They found that the RDS data is not authenticated or encrypted, which allowed them to broadcast the data to be picked up by any satellite navigation systems. Most satellite navigation devices cycle through the FM channels looking for the traffic data that could be broadcast over RDS, Barisani said. A hacker could obscure an existing station, like a man-in-the-middle attack, in order to transmit what they want. Or, a hacker could also transmit over an unused channel, he said.
Satellite navigation systems that are built into cars are not easy for users to upgrade, so Barisani does not expect the manufacturers to be able to make any changes that could prevent this type of attack. But he hopes that future standards might address the issue.