Top smart cities in Europe
The world's urban population has grown from 751 million in 1950 to 4.2 billion in 2018 and is projected by the UN to hit 7.7 billion by 2050 - 68 percent of the global population. Smart cities can offer ways to cope with the demographic changes through the use of technology and data, and many of the most promising ones are in Europe.
The International Data Corporation (IDC) estimates that European spending on smart cities will reach $19 billion (£15 billion) in 2018, and the continent is well-represented on the smart city rankings produced by the Eden Strategy Institute, a Singapore-based social innovation consultancy.
Here are the smart cities in Europe that earned places on the list.
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