Google commissioned Forrester Consulting to examine the total economic impact and expected ROI an organisation may see by adopting Google Apps after having managed a traditional on-premise messaging and collaboration environment.
Google Apps is a cloud-based messaging and collaboration platform that includes mail, calendaring, IM, together with web-based collaborative documents, spreadsheets, presentations, and sites.
AF rrr Tl E n mi Im"Prr F rlMeasuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps A Cross-Industry Survey And Analysis Project Director: Jon Erickson Contributor: Emily van Metre November 2010 Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary ................................................................................................................................................................................. 2 Google Apps Drives IT Cost Savings And Key Collaboration Benefits ................................................................................... 2 Factors Affecting Benefits And Costs ............................................................................................................................................. 5 Disclosures ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 5 TEI Framework And Methodology ...................................................................................................................................................... 7 Research Highlights ........................................................................................................................................................................... 8 Costs .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10 Benefits ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 12 Flexibility ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 29 Risk ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 30 Financial Summary ................................................................................................................................................................................ 32 Study Conclusions ................................................................................................................................................................................. 34 Google Apps Overview ......................................................................................................................................................................... 35 Appendix A: Composite Organization Description ....................................................................................................................... 37 Appendix B: Total Economic Impact" Overview ............................................................................................................................ 37 Appendix C: Glossary ........................................................................................................................................................................... 38 Appendix D: Endnotes .......................................................................................................................................................................... 39 2010, Forrester Research, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction is strictly prohibited. Information is based on best available resources. Opinions reflect judgment at the time and are subject to change. Forrester , Technographics , Forrester Wave, RoleView, TechRadar, and Total Economic Impact are trademarks of Forrester Research, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective companies. For additional information, go to www.forrester.com. About Forrester Consulting Forrester Consulting provides independent and objective research-based consulting to help leaders succeed in their organizations. Ranging in scope from a short strategy session to custom projects, Forrester s Consulting services connect you directly with research analysts who apply expert insight to your specific business challenges. For more information, visit www.forrester.com/consulting. Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 2 Executive Summary In May 2010, Google commissioned Forrester Consulting to examine the total economic impact and expected return on investment (ROI) enterprises may realize by adopting Google Apps after having managed a traditional on-premise messaging and collaboration environment. Google Apps is a cloud-based messaging and collaboration platform that includes mail, calendaring, IM, as well as Web-based collaborative documents, spreadsheets, presentations, and sites. The purpose of this study is to provide readers with a framework and analysis to evaluate the potential financial impact of switching from legacy email and productivity solutions to Google Apps. To accomplish this analysis, Forrester conducted a combination of in-depth executive interviews as well as two broader surveys targeted at both IT and end user groups. This approach allowed Forrester to realize the broad impact Google Apps is having on IT and end user organizations and to supplement this data with an understanding of the underlying factors driving firms to move to a cloud-based messaging and collaboration platform. Google Apps Drives IT Cost Savings And Key Collaboration Benefits Our interviews and broader survey around Google Apps and our subsequent financial analysis identified several key takeaways for organizations migrating to a cloud-based messaging and collaboration environment: " Ninety-three percent of respondents saw positive, tangible IT and end user impacts that drove ROI. End users familiar with cloud-based personal email transitioned more smoothly to using Google Apps at work. " End user productivity gains were even greater than IT cost savings. End users were able to use Gmail more efficiently than their previous email solution and collaborate more effectively with Google Docs and Google Sites than with traditional office software. " The switch to Google Apps was usually driven by replacing or augmenting an existing email solution. However, Forrester saw a growing number of cases where organizations chose Google Apps for collaboration and then migrated to the messaging platform. " For the representative organization, the three-year results of switching to Google Apps from traditional infrastructure include: o Risk-adjusted ROI of 307% o Risk-adjusted net present value (NPV) of 10,039,612 o Payback (break-even) within seven months Based on our in-depth interviews with IT groups and end users who had migrated to Google Apps as well as a broader survey of 600 IT and end user respondents, Forrester created a representative financial model to aggregate the results. These results are meant to highlight the common cost and benefit impacts of migrating to Google Apps from a previous on-premise IT environment and should be used as a starting point for readers assessing the potential economic impact of Google Apps within their organization. Table 1 illustrates the summary findings. Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 3 Actual return on investment will vary by organization. However, the findings contained within the analysis suggest positive tangible returns for the participating organizations. Table 1 Composite Organization Three-Year Risk-Adjusted ROI/NPV1ROI Payback period Total benefits (PV) Total costs (PV) Net present value 307% 7 months 13,309,852 3,270,240 10,039,612 Source: Forrester Research, Inc. " Benefits. Benefits realized by client organizations included both IT and end-user impacts. The representative organization realized the following benefits that represent those described by the interviewed and surveyed companies: o IT-impact benefits. These included the cost savings resulting from moving an organization s on-premise messaging and collaboration environment to Google cloud-based architecture. Cost savings included reduced spend on licenses and infrastructure. Cost savings included reduced IT administrator time spent on system maintenance, upkeep, patching, and upgrades. Organizations noted specific annual cost savings versus their previous environment of between 38% and 56%. o End-user-impact benefits. These included specific end-user benefits around the migration of an organization s messaging and collaboration environment to Google Apps. Messaging-specific benefits. These included productivity gains around email search, spam filtering, archiving, organization of email, as well as improved response time within the messaging environment. Collaboration-specific benefits. These included improved efficiency in terms of sharing and editing documents across teams and within teams, the ability to incorporate feedback more quickly, more efficient face-to-face and virtual meetings, as well pushing more timely and relevant information to distributed teams. o Enabled-flexibility benefits. These included the ability to achieve secondary benefits from the initial investment in Google Apps. Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 4 Collaborating with external partners. The ability to improve the efficiency of interacting with external partners and suppliers through Google Docs and Sites. Leveraging Google Marketplace. Taking advantage of new process-specific applications from Google Marketplace, further reducing process integration costs. " Costs. The composite organization incurred the following costs: o Google Apps annual license. o Internal implementation and rollout. o Ongoing routine support. Figure 1 Key Benefits Areas collaboration Source: Forrester Research, Inc. 12%16%30%11%18%12%1%Productivity increase face-to-face meetingsProductivity increase virtual meetingsProductivity increase faster document revision reconciliationProductivity increase timely project tracking informationProductivity increase efficient companywide information distributionProductivity increase efficient sharing and processing of feedbackReduced cost administration of collaborative sitesUntitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 5 Figure 2 Key Benefits Areas messaging Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Factors Affecting Benefits And Costs Table 1 illustrates the risk-adjusted financial results that the composite organization achieved. The risk-adjusted values take into account any potential uncertainty or variance that exists in estimating the costs and benefits, which produces more conservative estimates. The following factors may affect the financial results that an organization may experience: " IT-specific factors. Level of replacement of legacy messaging and collaboration platform and the ability to repurpose existing IT assets in moving to a cloud-based environment. " End user-specific factors. Success in training end users on new environment, speed of adoption, and rollout of collaboration tools. Disclosures The reader should be aware of the following: " The study is commissioned by Google and delivered by the Forrester Consulting group. 2%6%5%21%8%4%21%28%5%Productivity increase simpler email archivingProductivity increase faster email searchProductivity increase improved email organizationProductivity increase integrated instant messagingProductivity increase email threadingProductivity increase improved spam filteringReduced cost technology licensesReduced cost administration and operationsReduced cost infrastructure costUntitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 6 " Forrester makes no assumptions as to the potential return on investment that other organizations will receive. Forrester strongly advises that readers should use their own estimates within the framework provided in the report to determine the appropriateness of an investment in Google Apps. " Google reviewed and provided feedback to Forrester, but Forrester maintains editorial control over the study and its findings and does not accept changes to the study that contradict Forrester s findings or obscure the meaning of the study. " The customer names for the interviews were provided by Google. Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 7 TEI Framework And Methodology Introduction From the information provided in the interviews, Forrester has constructed a Total Economic Impact" framework for organizations considering switching to Google Apps from a traditional on-premise environment for messaging and collaboration. The objective of the framework is to identify the cost, benefit, flexibility, and risk factors that affect the investment decision. Approach And Methodology Forrester took a multi-step approach to evaluate the impact that adopting Google Apps can have on an organization. (see Figure 3). Specifically, we: " Interviewed Google product development, marketing, sales, and deployment personnel and Forrester analysts to gather data relative to Google Apps and the market for cloud-based messaging and collaboration services. " Interviewed 12 organizations currently using Google Apps to obtain data with respect to costs, benefits, and risks. " Conducted a survey of 600 IT and end-user respondents who had migrated to Google Apps. " Designed a composite organization based on characteristics of the interviewed and surveyed organizations (see Appendix A). " Constructed a financial model representative of the interviews using the TEI methodology. The financial model is populated with the cost and benefit data obtained from the interviews as applied to the composite organization. Figure 3 TEI Approach Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Forrester employed four fundamental elements of TEI in modeling the impact of Google Apps: 1. Costs. 2. Benefits to the entire organization. Design composite organizationConstruct financial model using TEI frameworkWrite case studyPerform due diligenceConduct customer interviewsUntitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 8 3. Flexibility. 4. Risk. Given the increasing sophistication that enterprises have regarding ROI analyses related to IT investments, Forrester s TEI methodology serves the purpose of providing a complete picture of the total economic impact of purchase decisions. Please see Appendix B for additional information on the TEI methodology. Research Highlights Research data for this analysis was derived from two sources: in-depth interviews with IT and end user stakeholders from 12 client organizations as well as a broader IT and end user survey consisting of 600 respondents. Clients for both the interviews and survey were globally distributed organizations consisting of at least 1,000 employees. The 12 interviews uncovered several important drivers, which formed the basis of the financial analysis: " The majority of the customers interviewed migrated their messaging applications first and then let users organically adopt Google s collaboration applications. In these scenarios, the case for adopting Google Apps was driven by specific cost reductions within the management of an organization s messaging environment. " While the initial case for migration was usually based on direct cost savings, clients noted the role of Google Apps collaboration tools in driving higher overall value across the organization. " The organizations interviewed for the study were a combination of globally distributed enterprises and midsized regional companies. Six were headquartered in North America while the rest were located outside of North America. " The majority of customers saw the use of Google Apps as augmenting their existing collaboration platforms, while the use of Google Apps for messaging was seen as a direct replacement. The results of the survey allowed us to validate several of the themes identified during the interview process. These included: " Employees using Google email, calendar, and contacts saw material benefits over their previous email system. Eighty-nine percent of employees using Google Apps felt that the time required to simply sign in to email had decreased. Forty-six percent felt that time spent organizing their email had decreased; 37% felt that time spent searching for email messages had decreased; and 30% felt that time spent locating a contact had decreased. " Employees who also use Google Docs, Google Sites, or Google Video saw additional benefits. For example, 72% of these employees are now more confident that they always have the current version of a project file, and 70% find that it takes less time to incorporate feedback into documents, spreadsheets, and presentations than before. " Forty-seven percent of employees using Google s Docs and Google Sites saw material improvements in their levels of collaboration with customers and partners since moving to those tools. Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 9 " Forty-seven percent of employees using Google Apps also felt that If I had to switch back to my previous email environment, my productivity would suffer. Composite Organization Based on the interviews with the 12 existing customers provided by Google and broader survey data, Forrester constructed a TEI framework, a composite company, and an associated ROI analysis that illustrates the financial impact of Google Apps. The representative organization Forrester synthesized from these results represents a North American services organization with 18, 000 employees spread out across three continents. The organization chose to first migrate to the Google Apps messaging platform, with 75% of end users fully migrated in Year 1 of the analysis and 100% of end users migrated in Year 2 and Year 3. The ramp-up of collaboration usage was more gradual; while Google Docs and Sites were immediately available with Gmail accounts, end users organically adopted Google Docs and Google Sites as these collaboration tools took root among their colleagues. In Year 1, 45% of users had started using Google s collaboration tools; in Year 2, 55% had started, and in Year 3 of the analysis, 60% had started. Framework Assumptions Tables 2 and 3 provide the basic model assumptions that Forrester used in this analysis. The Ref. column on the right side of Table 3 is used to illustrate reference metrics used as part of calculations in subsequent tables. Table 2 Adoption Assumptions - By Application Application adoption Percentage Users Gmail /Google Mail 100% 18,000 Google Talk 92% 16,560 Contacts 86% 15,480 Google Calendar 97% 17,460 Google Sites 64% 11,520 Google Video 33% 5,940 Google Docs 63% 11,340 Google Groups 9% 1,620 Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 10 Table 3 Usage Assumptions Ref. Metric Value (%) Value Total employees 18,000 A1 Percentage of employees migrated to Google messaging 100% 18,000 A2 Percentage of employees with access to Google collaboration 100% 18,000 A3 Percentage of users high usage 20% 3,600 A4 Percentage of users medium usage 50% 9,000 A5 Percentage of users low usage 30% 5,400 A6 Hourly cost per user 30 A7 Average meeting length 45 A8 Average meeting size 6 A9 Number of departments 50% A10 Productivity conversion factor 12 A11 Size of project teams small 15 A12 Size of project teams large 30 A13 Working hours per year 2,000 Source: Forrester Research, Inc. The discount rate used in the PV and NPV calculations is 10%, and the time horizon used for the financial modeling is three years. Organizations typically use discount rates between 8% and 16% based on their current environment. Readers are urged to consult with their respective company s finance department to determine the most appropriate discount rate to use within their own organizations. Costs To quantify the ROI impact, we need to examine the incremental costs associated with the migration to Google Apps. These costs included the cost of the Google Apps yearly license, as well as the cost of change management, testing, pilot, implementation, and ongoing routine support. Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 11 License Cost Google Apps is sold for a flat annual license, which includes both the messaging and collaboration tools. The annual license cost is 50 per user per year. Organizations noted a driver in moving to Google Apps was the simplicity of pricing as a factor in considering Google Apps as a messaging and collaboration platform. In addition to the base cost of licenses, message archiving costs of 13 per user per year were added to take into account the regulatory and compliance requirements of an organization of this size. Change Management In addition to the cost of licenses, organizations noted several additional costs were incurred as part of the migration away from their on-premise environment to Google Apps. The cost of change management included the time and effort to educate and promote adoption of Google Apps among a core group of power users. Testing Another upfront cost with Google Apps was internal testing prior to implementation. Organizations noted the need to ensure the data and information from existing accounts could be successfully migrated from the on-premise environment to the new cloud-based platform. Pilot And Implementation The cost of pilot and implementation includes the cost to transition each user to the new Google Apps environment. As part of the rollout, most of the surveyed organizations selected a subset of power users to perform the initial pilot as well as act as platform champions during the wider rollout. Support Costs Most organizations noted a reduction in overall support costs over time, but a minority of surveyed organizations saw increases in support costs as a result of user questions during the migration period. Total Costs Table 4 illustrates the total investment costs for the representative organization. Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 12 Table 4 Total Investment Costs Non-Risk-Adjusted Cost category Initial Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total PV Google Apps License 1,134,000 1,134,000 1,134,000 3,402,000 2,820,090 Change management 160,000 160,000 160,000 Testing 64,000 64,000 64,000 Pilot and implementation 60,000 60,000 60,000 Initial support 91,125 91,125 91,125 Total cost 375,125 1,134,000 1,134,000 1,134,000 3,777,125 3,195,215 Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Benefits For this section of the analysis, we examine benefits accruing both to IT and end user groups after the transition from legacy systems to the Google Apps messaging and collaboration applications within the representative organization. Messaging-specific benefits " End user impact o Improved efficiency within the messaging environment (email search, spam filtering, message archiving, and message organization). o Improved time to resolution (new contact, existing contact). o Improved response time to customer or partner request. " IT impact o Reduced software cost. o Reduced infrastructure cost. o Reduced operations and administration cost. Collaboration-specific benefits Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 13 " End user impact o Faster document revision reconciliation. o Timely project tracking information. o Improved ability to quickly incorporate feedback. o Improved meeting efficiency. o Efficient companywide information distribution. o Efficient sharing and processing of feedback. " IT impact o Reduced software cost. o Reduced cost to set up internal sites. Messaging-Specific Benefits Google Apps clients noted several key end-user benefits within Google s messaging environment in comparison with their on-premise email solution. Our survey results highlighted the improved efficiency in using specific features within Gmail, including Chat (IM). In particular, users cited key time savings with email search, spam filtering, message archiving, and message organization, as well as the ability to use integrated Chat (IM) within Gmail to quickly identify internal contacts and resolve immediate questions. In addition, users interviewed cited improvements to how they read and respond as a result of Gmail s automatic message organization capabilities like message threading. Improved Efficiency Within The messaging Environment (Search, Spam Filtering, Archiving, And Organization) Moving to Gmail had a net positive impact on users for many common tasks. Users saw a reduction in the amount of time spent searching, filtering, and archiving after they became accustomed to Gmail s new features. In the case of email archiving, users noted that in the previous messaging environment they needed to perform manual archiving of their email onto their local client, whereas Gmail s large storage quota eliminates the need for manual archiving. In addition, with all emails stored in one central, easily searched location, the amount of time spent searching for email was reduced as compared with the previous messaging environment, where archived email was stored in multiple locations. In fact, 37% of respondents reported that they spend less time searching for email messages. Forty-six percent of employees using Google Apps found that they spent significantly or slightly less time organizing email. With Gmail s spam filtering, users are able to reduce clutter within their inbox through a reduction in junk or spam messages. A full 25% agree that they spend less time looking for important messages because they have less spam to deal with. Furthermore, a very high 89% of employees report that they can sign into email faster with Gmail than they could with their previous solution. Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 14 To calculate the impact of improved efficiency within the representative organization, each calculation below examines the time spent on average for a given task prior to the adoption of Google for high-, medium-, and low-usage groups and then models the estimated time improvement of each task by group. Data from the in-depth interviews and broader survey suggests that users see improvements in productivity both in large blocks of time saved but also in small, recurring efficiencies throughout the day. While both sets of improvements are beneficial to an individual employee and the organization as a whole, to be conservative in our financial estimates, Forrester chose to only focus on larger blocks of time saved as part of the financial business case. Table 5 Productivity Increase Simpler Email Archiving Ref. Metric Calculation Value B1 Time spent archiving past emails monthly (min) B2 High-usage employee (min) 40 B3 Medium-usage employee (min) 20 B4 Low-usage employee (min) 10 B5 Estimated percentage improvement B6 High-usage employee 15% B7 Medium-usage employee 20% B8 Low-usage employee 25% Percentage of employees who see positive impact 46% B9 Total impacted users low usage 2,484 B10 Total impacted users medium usage 4,140 B11 Total impacted users high usage 1,656 B12 Hourly cost per user 30 B13 Productivity conversion factor 50% B14 Months per year 12 B15 Estimated savings (((B2/60)*B6*B11)+((B3/60)*B7*B10)+((B4/60)*B8*B9))*B12*B13*B14 98,118 Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 15 Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Table 6 Productivity Increase Faster Email Search Ref. Metric Calculation Value C1 Time spent searching past emails weekly (min) C2 High-usage employee (min) 30 C3 Medium-usage employee (min) 20 C4 Low-usage employee (min) 10 C5 Estimated percentage improvement C6 High-usage employee 15% C7 Medium-usage employee 18% C8 Low-usage employee 24% Percentage of employees who see positive impact 46% C9 Total users low usage 2,484 C10 Total users medium usage 4,140 C11 Total users high usage 1,656 C12 Hourly cost per user 30 C13 Productivity conversion factor 50% C14 Weeks per year 50 C15 Estimated savings (((C2/60)*C6*C11)+((C3/60)*C7*C10)+((C4/60)*C8*C9))*C12*C13*C14 353,970 Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 16 Table 7 Productivity Increase Improved Spam Filtering Ref. Metric Calculation Value D1 Total employees converted to messaging 18,000 D2 Percentage of employees who see positive impact 25% D3 Number of emails received per day 120 D4 Percentage of email spam 15% D5 Time spent filtering incoming emails daily (min) 15 D6 Working days per year 250 D7 Hourly cost per user 30 D8 Productivity conversion factor 50% D9 Estimated percentage improvement 5% D10 Estimated savings (D5/60)*D6*D1*D9*D8*D7*D2 210,938 Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Table 8 Productivity Increase Improved Email Organization Ref. Metric Calculation Value E1 Time spent organizing past emails weekly (min) E2 High-usage employee (min) 30 E3 Medium-usage employee (min) 20 E4 Low-usage employee (min) 15 E5 Estimated percentage improvement E6 High-usage employee 10% Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 17 E7 Medium-usage employee 14% E8 Low-usage employee 18% Percentage of employees who see positive impact 46% E9 Total users low usage 2,484 E10 Total users medium usage 4,140 E11 Total users high usage 1,656 E12 Hourly cost per user 30 E13 Productivity conversion factor 50% E14 Weeks per year 50 E15 Estimated savings (((E2/60)*E6*E11)+((E3/60)*E7*E10)+((E4/60)*E8*E9))*E12*E14*E13 290,835 Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Improved Time To Resolution While the previous set of productivity benefits focused on common daily tasks around a user s email environment, another set of benefits focuses on the tight integration between Gmail and Chat (IM). Seventy-eight percent of survey respondents said that they use IM for internal collaboration, while 98% exchange ideas via email. Chat is a faster way than email to resolve an issue and quickly move forward if you can find the contact. With a single address book and unified interface for email and chat, Google Apps speeds up finding contacts and initiating IM sessions. In fact, 30% report that they spend less time looking for a mail contact than with their previous solution. In addition, 19% report spending less time looking for a chat contact than before. For many of the interviewed customers, in their previous messaging environment, adoption of chat lagged behind that of email. A possible reason for this is that IM did not achieve a critical mass for widespread use and as a result, not all users had IM installed or active on their machines. With the integration of Gmail and Chat in the browser, users were more likely to adopt and use IM features. Users could search for and identify new contacts and quickly resolve questions though increased adoption of IM. To calculate the benefits related to increased use of IM, we isolated two specific use cases: identifying a new internal contact to ask a question over IM and reaching out to an existing contact using IM. Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 18 Table 9 Productivity Increase Integrated Instant messaging Ref. Metric Calculation Value F1 Number of one-on-one interactions per day 10 F2 Percentage of interactions with new contact 10% F3 Percentage of interactions following up on an outstanding question 70% F4 Percentage of employees seeing a decrease in time 19% F5 Number of employees impacted annually 3,420 F6 Time estimate locating individual 10 F7 Time estimate query with existing contact 15 F8 Hourly cost per user 30 F9 Productivity conversion factor 50% F10 Working days per year 250 F11 Estimated improvement 5% F12 Estimated savings ((F1*F2*F6/60)+(F1*F3*F7/60))* F8*F9*F10*F11*F5 1,229,063 Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Improved Response Time Another benefit cited by users was Gmail s message threading feature, which automatically organizes past emails into coherent conversations, making it easier to summarize and respond to messages. Several organizations noted that in the previous on-premise solution, there was no way to couple related emails by thread, resulting in more time spent searching for past emails and mentally piecing together conversations. In the employee survey, 48% of respondents report that with message threading in Gmail, Google Apps improves the response time to customer and partner requests when compared with their previous on-premise email system. Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 19 Table 10 Productivity Increase Email Threading Ref. Metric Calculation Value G1 Total impacted users low usage 2,592 G2 Total impacted users medium usage 4,320 G3 Total impacted users high usage 1,728 G4 Percentage of employees seeing an increase 48% G5 Percentage of emails that were part of a previous email thread 60% Time spent reviewing and responding to incoming emails daily (min) G6 High-usage employee 30 G7 Medium-usage employee 23 G8 Low-usage employee 18 G9 Hourly cost per user 30 G10 Working days per year 250 G11 Productivity conversion factor 50% G12 Estimated percentage improvement 6% G13 Estimated savings ((G6/60)*G3)+((G7/60)*G2)+((G8/60)*G1))*G9*G10*G11*G12*G5 437,400 Source: Forrester Research, Inc. IT Cost Savings messaging In addition to the potential benefits attributed to end users, there was consensus from the broader survey respondents as well as the in-depth interviewees on the possible IT cost savings of moving their messaging environment from a traditional on-premise environment to Google s cloud-based platform. Specific areas of savings include a reduction in licensing costs, reduced infrastructure costs, as well as reduced operational and administration costs. On average, the cost savings for the surveyed organizations ranged anywhere between 38% and 56% compared to their previous baseline environment. Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 20 Table 11 Reduced Cost Technology Licenses Ref. Metric Calculation Value H1 Number of messaging users 18,000 H2 Annual software cost on-premise 84 H3 Estimated number of licenses reduced Y1 50% H4 Estimated number of licenses reduced Y2 75% H5 Estimated number of licenses reduced Y3 95% H6 Estimated savings Y1 (H1*H2)*H3 756,000 H7 Estimated savings Y2 (H1*H2)*H4 1,134,000 H8 Estimated savings Y3 (H1*H2)*H5 1,436,400 Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Table 12 Reduced Cost Administration And Operations Ref. Metric Calculation Value I1 Number of messaging users 18,000 I2 Cost per user (pre-investment) patch and upgrade cost 7 I3 Estimated reduction 56% I4 Cost per user (pre-investment) security management 36 I5 Estimated reduction 54% I6 Cost per user (pre-investment) archiving 110 I7 Estimated reduction 52% I8 Cost per user (pre-investment) backup/disaster recovery 19 I9 Estimated reduction 50% I10 Cost per user (pre-investment) vendor management 2 Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 21 I11 Estimated reduction 41% I12 Estimated savings ((I2*I3)+(I4*I5)+(I6*I7)+(I8*I9)+(I10*I11))*I1 1,635,840 Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Table 13 Reduced Cost Infrastructure Cost Ref. Metric Calculation Value J1 Number of messaging users 18,000 J2 Infrastructure cost per user (pre-investment) 53 J3 Estimated reduction in spend Y1 5% J4 Estimated reduction in spend Y2 25% J5 Estimated reduction in spend Y3 55% J6 Estimated savings Y1 (J1*J2)*J3 47,700 J7 Estimated savings Y2 (J1*J2)*J4 238,500 J8 Estimated savings Y3 (J1*J2)*J5 524,700 Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Collaboration-Specific Benefits In addition to the messaging productivity benefits cited above, customers noted that the use of Google Apps collaboration tools also drove additional benefits for their organization. These included faster, streamlined collaboration in the context of incorporating edits from multiple contributors into documents, spreadsheets, and presentations; face-to-face and virtual meetings; distribution of timely, relevant, and accurate information; and soliciting feedback from distributed groups. Improved Meeting Efficiency A key part of improved collaboration is the ability to make in-person and virtual meetings more effective. The survey revealed that 39% of employees feel that Google Apps improves the productivity of meeting participants. The causes include Google Docs and Google Sites providing the ability for meeting attendees to have the most up-to-date version of a document, spreadsheet, or presentation prior to the start of a meeting. Seventy-two percent agree that Google Apps makes it easier to have the most current version of a file on hand. Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 22 Table 14 Productivity Increase Face-To-Face Meetings Ref. Metric Calculation Value K1 Number of face-to-face meetings per week 20 K2 Percentage of meetings requiring participants to review draft information 60% K3 Percentage of meeting time spent ensuring users have latest file 20% K4 Percentage of employees seeing a positive impact 39% K5 Employees impacted 7,020 K6 Average meeting length (min) 45 K7 Average meeting size 6 K8 Productivity conversion factor 50% K9 Weeks per year 50 K10 Hourly cost per user 30 K11 Estimated improvement 15% K12 Estimated savings K1*K9*K6/60*K2*K3*K11*K10*K5/K7*K8 236,925 Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 23 Table 15 Productivity Increase Virtual Meetings Ref. Metric Calculation Value L1 Number of phone/video meetings per week 50 L2 Percentage of meetings requiring participants to review draft information 40% L3 Percentage of meeting time spent ensuring users have latest file 15% L4 Percentage of employees seeing an increase 39% L5 Employees impacted 7,020 L6 Average meeting length (min) 45 L7 Average meeting size 6 L8 Productivity conversion factor 50% L9 Weeks per year 50 L10 Hourly cost per user 30 L11 Estimated improvement 15% L12 Estimated savings L1*L9*L6/60*L2*L3*L11*L10*L5/L7*L8 296,156 Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Improved Timeliness Of Accurate Information When important project information is readily available to all team members, it leads to more work in parallel, less waiting for others to complete their tasks, and keeping the process moving forward efficiently and in sync. The survey shows that with Google Apps, 70% of employees feel that the time to create and complete a shared file is improved. In addition, 52% feel that they no longer have to wait for others to complete a shared document. Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 24 Table 16 Productivity Increase Faster Document Revision Reconciliation Ref. Metric Calculation Value M1 Average number of active projects 1,200 M2 Percentage of project time reviewing and editing documents 20% M3 Percentage of reviewing time spent reconciling past document versions 20% M4 Productivity conversion factor 50% M5 Size of project teams small 5 M6 Size of project teams large 15 M7 Hourly cost per user 30 M8 Working hours per year 2,000 M9 Percentage of working hours spent on project tasks 40% M10 Estimated time improvement 10% M11 Estimated savings M1*M8*((M5+M6)/2)*M2* M3*M7*M9*M10 576,000 Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Table 17 Productivity Increase Timely Project Tracking Information Ref. Metric Calculation Value N1 Average number of active projects 1200 N2 Percentage of project time reviewing and editing documents 20% N3 Percentage of reviewing time spent tracking project status/updates 15% N4 Productivity conversion factor 50% N5 Size of project teams small 5 Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 25 N6 Size of project teams large 15 N7 Hourly cost per user 30 N8 Working hours per year 2,000 N9 Percentage of working hours spent on project teams 40% N10 Estimated time improvement 5% N11 Estimated savings N1*N8*((N5+N6)/2)*N2*N3*N7*N9*N10 216,000 Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Reduced Cost Of Distributed Corporatewide Information A benefit cited by organizations was the ability to quickly create collaborative sites and files to disseminate corporatewide or team-specific information to the appropriate set of users. In particular, several organizations noted the effectiveness of using Google Docs and Sites as a way to push content such as employee HR policies, benefits summaries, and finance information to different teams. Table 18 Productivity Increase Efficient Companywide Information Distribution Ref. Metric Calculation Value O1 Number of annual department wide reviews of information 1 O2 Average share of employees impacted 5% O3 Employees who have adopted collaboration tools 18,000 O4 Time to complete departmental review (hours) 100 O5 Productivity conversion factor 50% O6 Hourly cost per user 30 O7 Estimated improvement 25% O8 Estimated savings O1*O2*O3*O4*O5*O6*O7 337,500 Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 26 Improved Effectiveness In Receiving And Processing Feedback A benefit cited by the interviewed organizations was the ability of communities to open up new channels for executive management to communicate with employees. Seventy percent of survey respondents felt that with Google Apps, the time it takes to incorporate feedback is reduced. Prior to the use of Google Apps, the process of soliciting feedback from colleagues was ad hoc, with high time requirements to collect and analyze feedback. For example, face-to-face meetings enabled management to receive immediate feedback from employees but were very time consuming. With increased adoption of Google Docs and Google Sites, management could quickly create collaborative sites and files to solicit feedback on different topics rather than resort to repetitive email communications or face-to-face meetings. Table 19 Productivity Increase Efficient Sharing And Processing Of Feedback Ref. Metric Calculation Value P1 Number of departmental teams 12 P2 Number of departments 12 P3 Average time spent providing documentation feedback (hours) 15 P4 Size of project teams small 15 P5 Size of project teams large 30 P6 Productivity conversion factor 50% P7 Hourly cost per user 30 P8 Estimated percentage improvement 30% P9 Estimated savings P1*P3*P7*P8*P6*((P4+P5)/2)*P2 218,700 Source: Forrester Research, Inc. IT-Specific Benefits Efficiency Savings As with specific messaging benefits, organizations also saw specific IT cost reduction savings from their collaboration applications. Specific IT savings with Google Apps included the reduced cost of managing collaborative sites. In the previous environment, the representative organization had various internally managed collaboration platforms, involving significant complexity and support costs. With the adoption of Google Apps, the organization could expand end user access to collaborative sites while at the same time reducing the cost by standardizing on a single, hosted collaborative site platform. Prior to the introduction of Google Apps, the organization would deploy and manage 20 Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 27 new sites per year. With Google Apps, users had greater flexibility to create their own sites, increasing the number of new sites annually to 120 while reducing the IT burden to support those sites. Table 20 Reduced Cost Administration Of Collaborative Sites Ref. Metric Calculation Value Q1 FTE requirement to plan/test and deploy (hours) 150 Q2 Estimated reduction 38% Q3 Cost per user 30 Q4 Productivity conversion factor 50% Q5 Number of sites created annually 20 Q6 Estimated savings Q1*Q2*Q3*Q4*Q5 17,100 Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Total Benefits Total benefits of switching to Google Apps for both collaboration and messaging are listed in Table 21. Table 21 takes into account the observed ramp-up in usage of the messaging and collaboration tools in Google Apps. For messaging, we observed 75% adoption in Year 1 and 100% adoption in Year 2 and Year 3. For collaboration, we observed 45% adoption in Year 1, 55% adoption in Year 2, and 60% adoption in Year 3. Table 21 Total Benefits Non-Risk-Adjusted Ref. Benefit category messaging Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total PV B15 Productivity increase simpler email archiving 73,589 98,118 98,118 269,825 221,705 C15 Productivity increase faster email search 265,478 353,970 353,970 973,418 799,823 E15 Productivity increase improved email organization 218,126 290,835 290,835 799,796 657,165 F12 Productivity increase integrated instant messaging 921,797 1,229,063 1,229,063 3,379,922 2,777,164 Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 28 G13 Productivity increase email threading 328,050 437,400 437,400 1,202,850 988,340 D10 Productivity increase improved spam filtering 158,203 210,938 210,938 580,078 476,630 H6-H8 Reduced cost technology licenses 756,000 1,134,000 1,436,400 3,326,400 2,703,651 I12 Reduced cost administration and operations 1,226,880 1,635,840 1,635,840 4,498,560 3,696,310 J6-J8 Reduced cost infrastructure cost 47,700 238,500 524,700 810,900 634,686 Total messaging benefits 3,995,823 5,628,664 6,217,264 15,841,749 12,955,474 Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Ref. Benefit category collaboration Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total PV K12 Productivity increase face-to-face meetings 106,616 130,309 142,155 379,080 311,420 L12 Productivity increase virtual meetings 133,270 162,886 177,694 473,850 389,275 M11 Productivity increase faster document revision reconciliation 259,200 316,800 345,600 921,600 757,109 N11 Productivity increase timely project tracking information 97,200 118,800 129,600 345,600 283,916 O8 Productivity increase efficient companywide information distribution 151,875 185,625 202,500 540,000 443,619 P9 Productivity increase efficient sharing and processing of feedback 98,415 120,285 131,220 349,920 287,465 Q6 Reduced cost administration of collaborative sites 7,695 9,405 10,260 27,360 22,477 Total collaboration benefits 854,272 1,044,110 1,139,029 3,037,410 2,495,280 Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 29 Benefit category total benefits Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total PV Total benefits messaging 3,995,823 5,628,664 6,217,264 15,841,749 12,955,474 Total benefits collaboration 854,272 1,044,110 1,139,029 3,037,410 2,495,280 Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Flexibility Flexibility, as defined by TEI, represents an investment in additional capacity or capability that could be turned into business benefit for some future additional investment. This provides an organization with the right or the ability to engage in future initiatives but not the obligation to do so. There are multiple scenarios in which a customer might choose to migrate to Google Apps and later implement additional uses and business opportunities. Flexibility would also be quantified when evaluated as part of a specific project (described in more detail in Appendix B). Customers noted the use of Google Apps provided the ability to leverage secondary benefits such as functionality found in Google Marketplace and the use of Google Apps for more efficient collaboration with external partners, customers, and suppliers. To calculate the impact of this added flexibility, Forrester chose to compare the potential annual gain from using Google Apps for external collaboration and the use of third-party applications from the Google Apps Marketplace with the cost of taking advantage of these additional benefits. Net benefits of these two impacts are positive for this analysis as compared with the costs, but readers are urged to conduct their own analysis as to when these additional benefits should be exercised. Table 22 Flexibility External collaboration Productivity Increase Ref. Metric Calculation Value S1 Number of external partners 5 S2 Number of interactions to complete order process 12 S3 Cost per interaction 4,500 S4 Estimated cost improvement 40% S5 Cost to exercise 10,000 S6 Total flexibility value external collaboration (S1*S2*S3*S4)-S5 98,000 Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 30 Table 23 Flexibility Google Apps Marketplace Reduced Cost Ref. Metric Calculation Value T1 Cost to build and deploy standalone applications 350,000 T2 Percentage change in cost 60% T3 Cost to exercise 80,000 T4 Total flexibility value Google Marketplace (T1*T2)-T3 130,000 Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Risk Forrester defines two types of risk associated with this analysis: implementation risk and impact risk. Implementation risk is the risk that a proposed investment in Google Apps may deviate from the original or expected requirements, resulting in higher costs than anticipated. Impact risk refers to the risk that the business or technology needs of the organization may not be met by the investment in Google Apps, resulting in lower overall total benefits. The greater the uncertainty, the wider the potential range of outcomes for cost and benefit estimates. Quantitatively capturing investment and impact risk by directly adjusting the financial estimates results in more meaningful and accurate estimates and a more accurate projection of the ROI. In general, risks affect costs by raising the original estimates, and they affect benefits by reducing the original estimates. The risk-adjusted numbers should be taken as realistic expectations since they represent the expected values considering risk. The following implementation risks that affect costs are identified as part of this analysis: " Risk involved in taking the time to migrate users away from the previous on-premise environment. " Risk of escalating cost of examining, reforming, and implementing governance and security policy, as cloud based services evolve and grow within the organization. The following impact risks that affect benefits are identified as part of the analysis: " Risk of increased training required for both messaging and collaboration applications. Table 24 shows the values used to adjust for risk and uncertainty in the cost and benefit estimates. The TEI model uses a triangular distribution method to calculate risk-adjusted values. To construct the distribution, it is necessary to first estimate the low, most likely, and high values of risk that could occur. The risk-adjusted value is the mean of the distribution of those points. Readers are urged to apply their own risk ranges based on their own degree of confidence in the cost and benefit estimates. Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 31 Table 24 Cost And Benefit Risk Adjustment Costs Low Most likely High Mean Risk to cost license 100% 100% 100% 100% Risk to cost internal implementation 100% 100% 160% 120% Benefits Low Most likely High Mean Risk to benefits IT cost savings 55% 100% 100% 85% Risk to benefits end-user impact 53% 100% 100% 84% Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 32 Financial Summary The financial results calculated in the Costs and Benefits sections can be used to determine the ROI, NPV, and payback period for the organization s transition from its previous on-premise system to Google Apps. These are shown in Table 25 below. Table 25 Cash Flow Non-Risk-Adjusted Cash flow original estimates Initial Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total Present value Costs 375,125 1,134,000 1,134,000 1,134,000 3,777,125 3,195,215 Benefits 4,850,094 6,672,773 7,356,292 18,879,158 15,450,755 Flexibility 228,000 Net cash flow ( 375,125) 3,944,094 5,538,773 6,222,292 15,330,033 12,483,540 ROI 391% Payback period 6 months Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Table 26 below shows the risk-adjusted ROI, NPV, and payback period values. These values are determined by applying the risk-adjustment values from Table 22 in the Risk section to the cost and benefits numbers in Tables 4 and 21. Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 33 Table 26 Cash Flow Risk-Adjusted Cash flow risk-adjusted estimates Initial Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total Present value Costs 450,150 1,134,000 1,134,000 1,134,000 3,852,150 3,270,240 Benefits 4,105,267 5,649,500 6,230,122 15,984,890 13,081,852 Flexibility 228,000 Net cash flow ( 450,150) 3,199,267 4,515,500 5,096,122 12,360,740 10,039,612 ROI 307% Payback period 7 months Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 34 Study Conclusions The data collected in this study from both in-depth customer interviews and broader customer surveys demonstrates that migrating an organization s messaging and collaboration environment from legacy on-premise systems to Google Apps has the potential to provide a solid return on the investment. The risk-adjusted ROI of 307%, along with a rapid payback period (breakeven point) of less than seven months for the representative organization raises confidence that the investment is likely to succeed since the risks and uncertainty that may threaten the project have been considered and quantified. In interviews with Google Apps customers, Forrester found that a wide variety of organizations can realize tangible benefits in the form of: IT-impact benefits. These included the cost savings resulting from moving an organization s on-premise messaging and collaboration environment to Google s cloud-based architecture. " Cost savings included reduced spend on licenses and infrastructure. " Cost savings included reduced IT administrator time spent on system maintenance, upkeep, patching, and upgrades. " Organizations noted specific annual cost savings of between 38% and 56% versus their previous environment. End-user-impact benefits. These included specific end user benefits around the migration of an organization s messaging and collaboration environment to Google Apps. " messaging-specific benefits. These included productivity gains around email search, spam filtering, archiving, organization of email, as well as improved response time within the messaging environment. " collaboration-specific benefits. These included improved efficiency in sharing and editing documents across teams and within teams, ability to incorporate feedback more quickly, more efficient face-to-face and virtual meetings, as well pushing more timely and relevant information to distributed teams. Enabled-flexibility benefits. These included the ability to achieve secondary benefits from the initial investment in Google Apps. " Collaborating with external partners. The ability to improve the efficiency of interacting with external partners and suppliers through Google Docs and Google Sites. " Leveraging the Google Marketplace. Taking advantage of new process-specific applications from Google Marketplace, further reducing process integration costs. Based on these findings, companies looking to implement Google Apps as part of their messaging and collaboration strategy can anticipate improvements in operational efficiency, end user and IT productivity savings, and additional flexibility benefits. Using the TEI framework, many companies may find the potential for a compelling business case to make such an investment. Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 35 Google Apps Overview Google Apps is a Web-based messaging and collaboration platform available to businesses for a flat license fee of 50 per employee, per year. Google s applications run in any modern browser without any additional software to buy, install, maintain, or upgrade over time. Google also manages the back-end infrastructure in its highly scalable, reliable, and secure data center infrastructure, so there are no servers for customers to purchase, configure, patch, or upgrade over time. Google Apps includes the following: " Gmail includes 25 GB of storage per employee, Google-powered email search, industry-leading spam protection, and integrated IM, voice, and video chat. Workers can access their Gmail from any computer and on mobile devices including BlackBerry, iPhone, Windows Mobile, and tablets. Employees who prefer the Microsoft Outlook interface can continue to use Outlook as their email client without the company needing to run Microsoft Exchange. " Google Calendar allows employees to manage their schedules, create project calendars, and easily schedule time with colleagues. Multiple calendars can be overlaid to quickly display a composite view of multiple people s schedules. Workers can access Google Calendar on any computer and on mobile devices including BlackBerry, iPhone, Windows Mobile, and tablets. Employees who prefer the Microsoft Outlook interface can continue to use Outlook as their calendar client without the company needing to run Microsoft Exchange. " Google Docs brings multi-person real-time collaboration to documents, spreadsheets, presentations, and drawings. Editors can simultaneously access the same Web-based file from any computer and contribute while others are also making changes, sparing colleagues the inconvenience of collaborating over attachments. Google Docs can import traditional office files and export to those formats as well. " Google Sites allows teams to create and share collaborative team sites without burdening IT for support. Employees can access sites from any computer, and sites can display rich content such as embedded documents, spreadsheets, presentations, calendars, and videos. " Google Video is a private, secure platform for sharing internal videos like trainings, corporate communications, and more. Videos can be viewed or uploaded from any computer. " Google Groups allows administrators and end users to create mailing lists and browse or search discussion archives quickly from any computer. Documents, spreadsheets, presentations, sites, and other content can also be shared with groups so content owners can easily manage information permissions. " More Google applications including Google Voice, Google Reader, Blogger, Picasa, Google Reader, and AdWords are available from Google Apps accounts at no additional charge, and IT administrators can provide the right set of tools to each group within their organization. Migration And Integration Capabilities At no additional cost, Google offers scalable tools to easily migrate email, calendar, and contacts data from legacy Microsoft Exchange, Lotus Notes, and many IMAP email systems to Google Apps, so workers can seamlessly switch Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 36 over to Google Apps with minimal disruption. Furthermore, Google Apps is designed to integrate seamlessly with existing on-premise technology including: " Single Sign-On (SSO) integration " LDAP directory synchronization " Integration with local data repositories with the Secure Data Connector " APIs that allow flexible programmatic access to Google Apps from many other systems Data Security Google Apps has successfully completed an SAS 70 Type II audit to ensure that its security procedures are operating effectively, and Google Apps is the first suite of cloud-based messaging and collaboration applications to receive the stringent Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) certification and accreditation from the US General Services Administration. Reliability, Uptime Guarantee, And Support Google s Service Level Agreement (SLA) guarantees that Google Apps will be available at least 99.9% of the time, and the actual performance of the system has been significantly higher than this SLA threshold. Google provides enterprise-grade support to customers including 24/7 telephone support for critical administrative issues. Message Archiving For Regulatory Compliance In addition to Google Apps, companies can add Google Message Discovery for 13 per employee per year for one-year archiving. Google Message Discovery, powered by Postini, is a Web-based service that provides customers with complete email security, a hosted email archive, plus powerful message search and recovery tools. Availability And Other Versions Of Google Apps Google Apps is available in over 150 countries and in over 40 languages. In addition to Google Apps for businesses, Google offers free versions of Google Apps for small organizations, non-profits, and to schools and universities of all sizes. More Information For more information about Google Apps or to speak with a Google representative, visit www.google.com/apps. Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 37 Appendix A: Composite Organization Description For this TEI study, Forrester has created a composite organization to illustrate the quantifiable costs and benefits of switching from on-premise technology to Google Apps. The composite company is intended to represent an 18,000-employee enterprise and is based on characteristics of the interviewed customers. The composite company had been using on-premise messaging and collaboration tools prior to the investment in Google Apps. With the investment in Google Apps, usage varied among the different products: Table 27 Composite Organization Application Usage Application usage Did not use Fewer than 2 hours per week 2 to 4 hours per week 4 to 8 hours per week 8 to 16 hours (1 to 2 days) per week More than 16 hours (2 days) per week Gmail /Google Mail 0% 0% 2% 4% 78% 16% Google Talk 11% 45% 30% 9% 2% 3% Contacts 20% 50% 27% 0% 1% 2% Google Calendar 7% 43% 33% 10% 3% 4% Google Sites 18% 60% 18% 2% 1% 1% Google Video 22% 69% 8% 0% 0% 1% Google Docs 5% 55% 21% 12% 3% 4% Google Groups 15% 83% 1% 0% 0% 1% Appendix B: Total Economic Impact" Overview Total Economic Impact is a methodology developed by Forrester Research that enhances a company s technology decision-making processes and assists vendors in communicating the value proposition of their products and services to clients. The TEI methodology helps companies demonstrate, justify, and realize the tangible value of IT initiatives to both senior management and other key business stakeholders. The TEI methodology consists of four components to evaluate investment value: benefits, costs, risks, and flexibility. Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 38 Benefits Benefits represent the value delivered to the user organization IT and/or business units by the proposed product or project. Often product or project justification exercises focus just on IT cost and cost reduction, leaving little room to analyze the effect of the technology on the entire organization. The TEI methodology and the resulting financial model place equal weight on the measure of benefits and the measure of costs, allowing for a full examination of the effect of the technology on the entire organization. Calculation of benefit estimates involves a clear dialogue with the user organization to understand the specific value that is created. In addition, Forrester also requires that there be a clear line of accountability established between the measurement and justification of benefit estimates after the project has been completed. This ensures that benefit estimates tie back directly to the bottom line. Costs Costs represent the investment necessary to capture the value, or benefits, of the proposed project. IT or the business units may incur costs in the forms of fully burdened labor, subcontractors, or materials. Costs consider all the investments and expenses necessary to deliver the proposed value. In addition, the cost category within TEI captures any incremental costs over the existing environment for ongoing costs associated with the solution. All costs must be tied to the benefits that are created. Risk Risk measures the uncertainty of benefit and cost estimates contained within the investment. Uncertainty is measured in two ways: 1) the likelihood that the cost and benefit estimates will meet the original projections, and 2) the likelihood that the estimates will be measured and tracked over time. TEI applies a probability density function known as triangular distribution to the values entered. At a minimum, three values are calculated to estimate the underlying range around each cost and benefit. Flexibility Within the TEI methodology, direct benefits represent one part of the investment value. While direct benefits can typically be the primary way to justify a project, Forrester believes that organizations should be able to measure the strategic value of an investment. Flexibility represents the value that can be obtained for some future additional investment building on top of the initial investment already made. For instance, an investment in an enterprisewide upgrade of an office productivity suite can potentially increase standardization (to increase efficiency) and reduce licensing costs. However, an embedded collaboration feature may translate to greater worker productivity if activated. The collaboration feature can only be used with additional investment in training at some future point in time. However, having the ability to capture that benefit has a present value that can be estimated. The flexibility component of TEI captures that value. Appendix C: Glossary Discount rate: The interest rate used in cash flow analysis to take into account the time value of money. Although the Federal Reserve Bank sets a discount rate, companies often set a discount rate based on their business and investment environment. Forrester assumes a yearly discount rate of 10% for this analysis. Organizations typically use discount Untitled DocumentForrester Consulting Measuring The Total Economic Impact Of Google Apps 39 rates between 8% and 16% based on their current environment. Readers are urged to consult their respective organization to determine the most appropriate discount rate to use in their own environment. Net present value (NPV): The present or current value of (discounted) future net cash flows given an interest rate (the discount rate). A positive project NPV normally indicates that the investment should be made, unless other projects have higher NPVs. Present value (PV): The present or current value of (discounted) cost and benefit estimates given at an interest rate (the discount rate). The PV of costs and benefits feed into the total net present value of cash flows. Payback period: The breakeven point for an investment. The point in time at which net benefits (benefits minus costs) equal initial investment or cost. Return on investment (ROI): A measure of a project s expected return in percentage terms. ROI is calculated by dividing net benefits (benefits minus costs) by costs. A Note On Cash Flow Tables The following is a note on the cash flow tables used in this study (see the example table below). The initial investment column contains costs incurred at time 0 or at the beginning of Year 1. Those costs are not discounted. All other cash flows in Years 1 through 3 are discounted using the discount rate (shown in Framework Assumptions section) at the end of the year. Present value (PV) calculations are calculated for each total cost and benefit estimate. Net present value (NPV) calculations are not calculated until the summary tables and are the sum of the initial investment and the discounted cash flows in each year. [Table Example] Ref. Category Calculation Initial cost Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Appendix D: Endnotes 1 Forrester risk-adjusts the summary financial metrics to take into account the potential uncertainty of the cost and benefit estimates. For more information on Risk, please see page 30.