A service is simply work done by one person or group that benefits another. An emphasis here could be placed on benefits. In the context of an IT organization serving the enterprise, the description of a service must take into account fundamental business considerations. An effective working definition of an IT service is: “an IT capability delivered to a client at a prescribed service level and cost.”
An IT service is typically constructed from a set of components (e.g., hardware and software) and activities (e.g., install, support). Without some guidelines, determining which components and activities should constitute a service can be confusing — the challenge of service construction is addressed later in this paper.
White PaperM aximizing ValueThrough IT ServicesMichael MulickaApril 2006Untitled DocumentAbstractThis paper describes how running IT as a service-basedbusiness has the potential to improve both the real andperceived value of IT to the enterprise. The role of the IT Service Catalog, a critical enabler, is given particularattention. The reader will learn:" The circumstances and drivers encouraging a service-based approach to IT" Description and characteristics of an IT Service" Description and characteristics of an IT Service Catalog" Benefits to IT and the enterprise" Considerations for implementation" Opportunities to accelerate results while minimizing riskBackgroundCircumstances and DriversToday s business climate forces managers to maintain alaser focus on achieving and communicating value. Neverhas this been truer than for today s IT manager, whoseorganization is under constant and increasing scrutiny,and who is continually challenged to prove IT s value tothe core business. Business managers demand that IT:" Align itself to the business. Substantiate every projectand activity by showing how they support and promotethe core business." Constrain and reduce costs. Do more with less. Self-fund projects and maximize the productivity ofevery asset and resource." Match supply to demand. Deliver the right capability at the right time and the right cost." Operate transparently. Provide clear and direct linkagebetween IT costs and activities and their value to theenterprise, in quantifiable business terms.These demands are healthy for IT because they drive abusiness mind set IT must be run as a business withinthe business for the CIO to maintain credibility withhis/her C-level peers. Achieving this goal, however, is nottrivial. For most organizations, accomplishing it requires areal transformation in culture, processes, methodologies andtechnologies. While trying to accomplish this transformation,traditional challenges, such as maintaining service levelsand regulatory compliance, continue. At the same time, theenvironment changes at an increasingly rapid pace. Legacysystems are wrapped in emerging technologies; preciousfew technologies are actually retired. The environmentgrows more unwieldy in its complexity every day. Despitethese complications, transformation remains both necessaryand possible.Real and Perceived ValueEvery business survives on its ability to deliver value. IT no longer gets a free ride as some generic componentof enterprise overhead, and so must establish andcommunicate a clear value proposition to its clients, thecore business executives. Both real and perceived valueare important to ensuring that clients are comfortablewith the service they receive, and are supportive of ITmanagement and direction.Real value is impassive quantified and objective; easierto measure. Production operations and developmentprojects are usually measured this way, using metrics forquality (e.g., number of defects), timeliness (i.e., deliveryon schedule) and cost relative to prescribed targets.Perceived value is expressive qualified and subjective;harder to measure. Service operations, although theytypically employ supporting objective metrics, are usuallyultimately evaluated this way (e.g., a help desk customersatisfaction survey). The reason is simple: In a serviceoperation, perceptions reign. It doesn t matter how quicklya help desk analyst picks up the phone, and it doesn tmatter how many tickets they say they ve resolved on thefirst call, if the customers believe they wait too long anddon t really get their problems addressed.Trying to separate real and perceived value is often difficultand sometimes even futile. Which is more valuable: Thelocal family restaurant provides all the coffee you candrink for 50 cents. The internationally known premiumcoffee house provides a single cup for 3.50. They both haveavid and loyal customers who, based on their value set,believe they are getting value for money. The importantthings: know your customers, know what they need, knowwhat they want and deliver it. In the case of IT, theserequire clear understanding of and close alignment withthe core business.IT Business PotentialImplementation of an IT Service Catalog is a way to addressmany of the aforementioned challenges and move IT to a client-centric, service-based business. Done right, thejourney incorporates the reward. The intermediate stepsto achieving an effective service catalog each possessadvantages and benefits of their own. Not only will ITrealize incremental improvements in real value (e.g.,reduced costs), and perceived value (e.g., customersatisfaction), but they will make steady progress towardschanging culture and organizational behavior arguablythe biggest opportunity for long-term benefits. The ITService Catalog has the potential to enable IT to transformitself through evolution, promoting steady progress towardsproving value while minimizing risk.2Untitled DocumentIT Service ConstructsIT ServicesA service is simply work done by one person or group thatbenefits another. An emphasis here could be placed onbenefits. In the context of an IT organization serving theenterprise, the description of a service must take intoaccount fundamental business considerations. An effectiveworking definition of an IT service is: an IT capabilitydelivered to a client at a prescribed service level and cost. An IT service is typically constructed from a set ofcomponents (e.g., hardware and software) and activities(e.g., install, support). Without some guidelines,determining which components and activities shouldconstitute a service can be confusing the challenge ofservice construction is addressed later in this paper.Services exist on a continuum from granular to aggregate.Some examples:" Install Standard PC. For a one-time cost of 1,000, anda monthly cost of 10, the IT organization will acquire,build, configure, deliver, install and provide one-dayresponse to hardware support calls for a standarddesktop computer." Enable Business Desktop. For a one-time cost of 1,400 and a monthly cost of 50, the IT organizationwill Install a Standard PC, establish wired networkconnectivity, install an IP telephone, conduct regularsoftware maintenance, and provide one-hour responseto hardware and software support calls during normalbusiness hours." On-Board New Hire. For a one-time cost of 200, the IT organization will create LAN and email accounts,create access rights and permissions on productionand/or development systems, assign a phone number, create a voice mail account, and supply user documentation." Enable Application Server. For a one-time cost of 5,000 and a monthly cost of 350, the IT organizationwill acquire, build, configure, install and maintain thephysical environment for an application server in theirdatacenter." Manage Production Application. For a negotiatedrecurring cost, the IT organization will perform systemadministration, conduct online and batch operations,perform housekeeping functions, manage availability,performance, and capacity, ensure recoverability, and oversee technical maintenance and support for a production application s technology infrastructure, up to but not including the desktop." Maintain Business Continuity. For negotiated one-timeand recurring costs, the IT organization will EnableApplication Servers and Manage a Production Applicationbackup at a remote data center, Enable BusinessDesktops of a number sufficient for disaster-modeoperations, and perform all maintenance necessary toaffect start-of-disaster-day recovery within 48 hours.Of course, these simplified examples are for purposes ofillustration only, and whether or not they would makesense is business-specific. The important thing is tounderstand their common characteristics:" A combination of components and activities (hardware,software, and specific actions that will be performed)expressed as a service (rather than as a product) in avalue-based context." Prescribed, measurable service levels and costs(specific monetary amounts, support hours, responsetimes) that can be understood, ordered and forecastedby business consumers." Understandable by business users, avoiding overtlytechnical terms (today s business person is likely tounderstand PC or server, but unlikely to understand NIC or SAN. )" The opportunity to create complementary or even co-requisite services (Enable Business Desktop andOn-Board New Hire)." The ability to create aggregate services (MaintainBusiness Continuity) from a collection of individualservices (Enable Application Server, ManageProduction Application, Enable Business Desktop).IT Service CatalogHistory and ContextIn the past (circa seven years ago), it was quite popular forIT organizations to create inventories of services in anattempt to organize their activities. The term IT ServiceCatalog was sometimes used to refer to lists of these services. However, early attempts were often immatureand fraught with problems. Chief among them was thatthe services didn t possess the characteristics describedabove, and were neither well-defined nor measurable.Other problems included lack of clear service ownership,ineffective deployment, and isolation of the catalog fromrelated systems and processes. Because it was difficult tomaintain, the catalog quickly fell out of sync with reality,and the services drifted into irrelevance. When fresh, these service catalogs gave the illusion that IT organizations werewell in control, but without the necessary underpinnings inplace, they lost effectiveness and support for them waned.Bottom line: the concept was good, but implementationwas poor.3Untitled DocumentReemergence and PotentialWhat was needed was a crisp, clear methodology fordefining services, and the processes and technologies todeliver them effectively. The expertise and componentrynow exist to deliver on the potential, inspiring a new waveof interest in IT Services in general and in the ServiceCatalog in particular.From a consumer s perspective, the IT Service Catalog isthe mechanism by which services are defined, organized,and offered, typically taking the form of a very easy to use web-based application they can use directly verysimilar to today s Internet retailers. The customer is thenfocused on what they want, and concerned with how theywill get it only to the extent that it provides immediateadvantage to them (e.g., opting for expedited delivery, or retrieving delivery status).The Catalog organizes and offers services to consumers in a manner meaningful to them. It is an essential point oflinkage between IT and consumers, simplifying IT s bill of materials into services that are easy to understand,economic to buy, and tuned to the requirements of eachbusiness unit and/or consumer. The language used mustnot only be consumer-oriented, but should be consistentacross products and, ideally, should be used throughoutthe consumers experience with IT (i.e., the same languageshould be spoken by customer-facing IT representatives,such as service desk and field support staff). This seamlesslanguage builds consumer understanding and confidence,which are elements of trust. By taking care to provide a simple, consistent experience to end users, the ITorganization can improve the way the business thinksabout IT, increasing perceived value.From the IT perspective, the Service Catalog is a criticalcomponent in the service delivery chain. Integrated withsystems such as request management, procurement,provisioning, and inventory/asset management, requestsand fulfillment can be automated and tracked. This bothinsulates the consumer from the details and mechanics ofacquiring the service, and improves the IT organization sefficiency. Integrated with service delivery systems such asservice desk, availability management, problem managementand change management, the Catalog provides the dataand information necessary to improve customer serviceand satisfaction. For example, service desk representativeswill know when follow-up action is necessary, and commandcenter staff will know how to prioritize situation response,based on prescribed service targets tied to specificcomponents within each service.Since it has broad implications for both the consumersand for the IT organization itself, implementation of a highquality IT Service Catalog should be considered a criticalsuccess factor in the transformation and support of IT as a service business.BenefitsCommunication: Understanding, Transparencyand AlignmentThe simple act of describing IT services in business termsforces beneficial behavior. IT must perform due diligencewith the business customers. As they do, their understandingof the business improves while their relationships withbusiness managers are strengthened. The communicationand negotiation necessary to create the services results in inherent transparency of IT to the business, because the discussions center not on what IT does, but insteadon what the business needs. The traditional veil ofconfusion begins to lift and customers are more at easewhen dealing with IT. Through continual sharing of insights,IT and business managers begin to realize that they have common goals. These natural levers of alignment present IT as more in tune with the business and moreresponsive to business needs, increasing perceived value.Service DeliveryMany IT organizations suffer from chronic problems (real or perceived) with one or more aspects of servicedelivery quality, quantity and timeliness. The IT ServiceCatalog is an effective tool for service improvement. Since it provides the linkage between consumers andservices, and from services to components and activities,the Catalog can be used as an integral part of powerfulautomation solutions. Service request processing andfulfillment workflows, extending even into third-partyproviders and subcontractors, can be automated. Sinceservices are standardized, fulfillment times can be shortenedthrough warehousing and automated provisioning. CustomerService organizations can be alerted when service targetsare threatened, allowing them to take preemptive action,increasing effectiveness. Repeatable metrics underlyingreal value can be measured and tracked, providing thecapability for continual improvement.Cost Constraint/ReductionThe service-based approach has the potential for gains inefficiency through automation, producing measurable costreductions. For example, some industry analysts suggestthat cost reductions of up to 40% are possible throughautomation of the service request process. Since this is a high-volume function, savings can be substantial.Savings are encouraged in ways other than automation.Because service descriptions include both componentsand activities, allocation of human resources is examined.When the cost of support is explained to business clientsand allocated to each service in quantifiable terms, aclinical analysis of want vs. need typically ensues,resulting in more effective allocation of staff to critical4Untitled Documentbusiness systems. Examination and organization ofactivities also reveals redundancies in IT processes andprocedures, encouraging waste-cutting and streamlining. Theservice approach encourages standardization, allowing forimproved cost effectiveness through economies of scale.Culture, Behavior and PlanningFor many IT organizations engaged in transformationefforts (i.e., striving to change from a reactive supplier oftechnology to a business within the business ) the move toIT Services is considered a critical pillar supporting manyother aspects of managing IT and the enterprise. More thanmerely a way to organize and charge for the products andcapabilities they provide, IT Services represent a change in the organization s mind-set. Services are discussed in consistent terms of business cost, risk and benefit the technical jargon is left on the cutting room floor. A maturation of attitudes and a shift towards informed,dispassionate analysis results in decisions that are bestfor the business. Over time, the change becomes natural,pervasive and institutionalized.This change has tremendous upside potential for both ITand the core business. There is an increase in demandawareness, and all stakeholders come to realize the cost of unbridled IT demand. Consumption is fully understood,and simple metrics (e.g., capacity against utilization)encourage managers to find more cost-effective alternativesto capacity growth. Behavior can be driven through servicepricing schemes that promote consumption of strategicsolutions and discourage consumption of those thatshould be retired.With these mechanisms in place, IT management andplanning become both simpler and more sophisticated.Investment planning emphasizes IT investments that directly support the business strategy. Serviceconsumption planning is more accurate than traditionaltechnology consumption planning, because (1) itincorporates both historical growth and support forspecific business events, and (2) IT experts, rather thanbusiness people, are charged with translating serviceconsumption to technology and resource consumption. IT experts are in a better position to take a holistic view,and can plan not only the needs of a particular businessunit, but can factor-in related requirements (e.g., ITmanagement systems, bandwidth) in aggregate. Supplymore closely matches demand and costing is moreaccurate. The IT organization is more responsive and the IT environment is more manageable.Less Stress, Better ExperienceThe IT Services concept not only improves the businessbottom line, it improves life for business and IT staff alike.With IT Services in place, planning and budgeting areeasier and more accurate. Business clients are confidentthey re getting value for money, and IT are confident that they know what the business needs and when theyneed it. Business managers are in control of their destiny,and consumers are in control of their acquisitions andrequests. Expectations are clear, there are no surprises,and stress levels are reduced.ImplementationService ConstructionAs mentioned earlier, service construction can beconfusing and it s easy to be daunted by determiningwhere to begin. However, as the service-based paradigmhas matured, some big rules for the construction ofservices have emerged:1. Establish consumption-based pricing up front. It isimportant to go through the exercise of costing andpricing services as they re developed. If the focus isplaced only on the technology and resource aspects ofservice definition, the benefits of the service approachare significantly reduced without the financialcomponent, the consumer doesn t know what theservice is costing them, and how their consumptionrelates to their bottom line. They re still at a loss toplan effectively, and the value of IT remains unclear. If the intent is to add the financial component later, that notion is misplaced. Almost certainly, services willhave been defined in such a way that usage trackingand cost recovery will be difficult in part or in whole.Consumption-based service pricing will supportwhatever cost recovery methodology is used by theenterprise (i.e., cost allocation, activity-based-costing,direct chargeback, etc.). By maintaining rigor and fiscaldiscipline from the beginning, the full benefits of ITservices will be realized.2. Clearly quantify fundamental terms of service. Usespecific monetary amounts wherever possible, andstate explicitly where prices must be negotiated on acase-by-case basis. Describe resources and activitiesincluded and, where necessary, state explicitlyactivities that are out of scope. In practical terms, (see (3) below) include service level targets/objectives(SLOs) such as support hours, response times, etc.Note that formal service level agreements (SLAs) arenot always necessary. While SLAs are perfectlyacceptable to use, their value is a hotly debated topicon its own, and that debate need not be put on thecritical path to IT Service success. Establish somethingthat makes sense for your organization it is ineveryone s best interest to avoid ambiguity.5Untitled Document3.Ensure consumption is measurable and services aresimple.It is common for managers to get caught up in enthusiastic definition of services for which there isno practical way to track usage and/or performance.For example, defining a service that targets two-dayturnaround on a change makes no sense if you don thave the processes and systems to track changes.Keep the IT Service s underlying resources simple,enabling a straightforward, understandable price to becalculated. Be consistent in your accountingmethodology and pragmatic about pricing andrecovery. Especially early on, avoid complicatedschemes that include discounts, rebates, shared assetaccounting, penalty clauses, etc. Complicated systemshave a deleterious effect on understanding andconfidence, and in any given situation, tend to costmore in time and effort than they recover.4.Offer the fewest number of services that achieve yourgoals.Establish the goals you want to achieve at thebeginning of the endeavor, and then create just enoughservices to achieve those goals. Avoid complexity andredundancy. The number of services you end up withwill be driven by your organization s flexibility andtolerance levels in specific areas, the most prominent ofwhich is transparency. Here again, balance is needed.You must achieve financial and operational transparencyto the degree necessary for your business clients tofeel comfortable with the service they receive and thecost at which it is provided (i.e., to support an intelligentbusiness discussion). But, if the passion for transparencybecomes maniacal (i.e., it must be clear how everypenny of every dollar is applied to the business),practicality goes out the window. The service portfolioquickly becomes unmanageable and confusing,defeating its purpose.One technique for arriving at the right level of servicegranularity is this: For every resource and activity you add to the service, ask, Is this understandable to the business clients? Does it make sense for IT? Is it financially and operationally transparent? Can it be measured and priced? If the answer is yes to all of these, add another resource or activity. Bundle asmany related resources and activities as you can untilone of the tests fails.Inevitably, the question arises: What number ofservices is right for my organization? There is nomagic number, and it s impossible to know withoutdoing the analysis for your business. However, even in the biggest organizations (where the IT spend ismeasured in billions) an effective number is usuallymeasured in dozens rather than hundreds.5Think holistically, build incrementally.While it isimportant to do comprehensive up-front goal setting,analysis and planning, there is no reason to move to a service-based IT operating model al at once. It is unrealistic to think that an entire service portfoliocan be created and executed in a single go. In fact,attempting to do so introduces unnecessary risk (not to mention being a major stress inducer for both IT andbusiness clients). Create small, easy to define servicesfirst, testing and refining them in cooperation withbusiness clients. Run billing in parallel with existingsystems to ensure results meet expectations. Migrateto the service structure one or a few services at a time.Remember, this is transformation of IT, and it takestime. Use the technique of aggregation to build largerservices. Plan from the top-down; execute from thebottom up.DeploymentAs is the case with service construction, some big rulessupport effective deployment:1.Build a business case.Every organization has its ownphilosophy and process for this, with varying levels ofvalue placed on different factors such as hard-moneysavings, cost avoidance, and improved productivity. As shown above, all these opportunities exist whenbuilding a case for adoption of IT Services.One place to begin is in quantifying savings throughautomation of service request and fulfillment processing.Managing service requests is frequently a large andcostly function. It is not uncommon for the cost ofprocessing for some service requests to be in thethousands of dollars, and thousands of service requestsare processed every year. Obtain current estimatesfrom industry analysts, and apply these to your situationto quantify potential savings. You should be able tojustify significant savings through forward-deploymentof the Service Catalog (i.e., consumer direct access),automation of back-end processing, and a reduction ofthe number of service requests overall (through bundling).2.Establish dialogue early with business clients andkeep it going.In order to gain the aforementionedimprovements in communication, understanding andtransparency, it is imperative to include businessclients from the beginning of the endeavor. The effortcan be driven from within IT, but success is impossiblewithout business-side support. Business managersmust participate in service definition their buy-in is essential, but even more important is the spirit of partnership that will encourage an enduringrelationship between the business and IT.6Untitled Document3. Establish governance. Inevitably, questions andconcerns will arise, and the answers will not always be obvious. In fact, creative tension is likely to exist,especially early on when the priorities of IT and thebusiness, and even the priorities of different businessunits, are being reconciled. Unmanaged, this can bedifficult to cope with. However, with proper governance,it can be healthy and productive.Governance teams should include principal stakeholdersfrom major IT service groups and each major line of business, and must be empowered with decisionmaking authority. This will aid not only initial servicecomposition, but fine-tuning of the service portfolioover time.4. Create an IT service taxonomy and a supportingService Catalog structure. Taxonomy is simply asystem for grouping and classification, but is a vitalelement of an effective IT Service portfolio. Impositionof a taxonomy forces organizations to make harddecisions about the fundamental structure of theirservice portfolio, including matters such as the degreeto which business unit and regional differences will be accommodated. As with the services themselves,the taxonomy should be kept simple and practical.Segmentation of services must be considered verycarefully. Judicious segmentation bolsters simplicity;unnecessary segmentation introduces complexity.Segmentation across major business units may makesense, and will contribute to the businesses acceptanceof the service approach. For example, it is of little if anyvalue to try to squeeze a retail banker s teller machineinto the same class as a wholesale foreign exchangetrader s workstation. Segmentation across geographicalregions sometimes makes sense but often does not, andshould be thoroughly justified on a case-by-case basis. We do business differently here is not justification,and could actually be indicative of organizationalinefficiency. An example of proper regional justificationwould be differing legal and regulatory requirements.The Service Catalog must be deployed in a manner suchthat the service portfolio is kept manageable; multipleService Catalogs might be appropriate. For example, ifthe taxonomy dictates that retail and wholesale bankingunits will have essentially independent service portfolios,it is appropriate to have two catalogs, each tailored to abanking unit. Note that there is no statement made hereabout the physical deployment of the catalogs thematter of whether these are two physically separatecatalogs or two logical catalogs (i.e., business-specific views ) within a single physical repository is unimportantto this subject and is explicitly excluded.5. Establish clear ownership and accountability. Eachservice must have an assigned owner within the ITorganization who is ultimately accountable for everyaspect of the service. The owner directs the evolutionof the service and oversees (but does not necessarilyperform hands-on management of) costing, pricing,resource allocation and service delivery. The ownerdeals with internal organizations, outsourcers andthird-party suppliers on behalf of the business clients.An individual could own multiple services and, ifwarranted, a group of service owners could beaccountable to a portfolio manager who owns acollection of related services. These owners get out front and lead, innovating, maintaining the services, and representing them within governance.6. Establish technology standards and life cycles.Services by definition cannot be ad-hoc, so technologystandards are essential. The fewer number of technologiesyou need to deal with, the simpler your service portfoliowill be. As technologies are selected, thought shouldbe given to their useful lifespan, and an exit strategyshould be considered. Use the power of Service pricingto encourage consumption of strategic technologiesand discourage consumption of aging ones for whichsupport costs are escalating.7. Maximize benefits through integration. As alluded to above, the value of the IT Service Catalog will bemaximized only if it is actionable, contributing toautomation of service requests, fulfillment, approvals,and overall workflows. Without the necessary systeminputs and outputs, the cost of maintaining the Catalogrises and its relative value diminishes. Ideally, the ITService Catalog is part of a wider IT managementsolution that provides the component integrationrequired to take advantage of the Catalog. It is notunusual that, over time, several points of process and system integration are established both within IT(e.g., IT management systems) and external to IT (e.g.,reference data, enterprise systems such as procurement,supplier tracking systems). A robust architecture and integration framework go a long way to easingimplementation and maintenance.Accelerating ResultsThe benefits of IT Services can be made real for yourorganization today. Unlike the situation several years ago, abody of expertise and intellectual property exists upon whichyou can draw for help. Equally important, technologieshave matured to the point where robust, highly effective,purpose-specific solutions are now commercially available.7Untitled DocumentCA, a market-leading software company focused onEnterprise IT Management, offers a world class IT ServiceCatalog. Its depth of functionality and simple-to-usecustomer interface make it a market-leading ServiceManagement solution. It is the first IT Service Catalog tocome fully integrated with procurement, service desk, asset/inventory management, IT accounting and billing, androbust reporting mechanisms, all underpinned by a leadingmanagement database and application architecture. Out-of-the-box capabilities are strong enough to get you up-and-running quickly:" Catalog of services with pre-built content and role-based access." Enables clear service definitions including service levelsand costs." Provides actionable content including approvals anddelivery workflows." Delivers usage and performance data in business terms." Tracks user subscriptions.BearingPoint, a global management and IT consulting firm,complements this strong technology framework with theIT management and industry-specific expertise to ensureyou get the most out of your investment and realize your goals. BearingPoint advisory and consulting services canhelp you at every step of the journey:" Building a business case including quantified businessvalue." Defining specific goals and objectives for transformation." Assessing the readiness of your organization andidentifying critical success factors." Defining IT Services, including service level, costrecovery, and pricing strategies." Optimizing and integrating service processes." Creating information and data models/architectures." Integrating with subcontractors (e.g., outsourcers) andthird-party suppliers." Managing your transformation project." Establishing and transitioning to a governance modelright for you.ConclusionThe transformation to a service-based IT operating modelprovides significant improvements in both the real andperceived value of IT. Tangible benefits can be realizedincrementally, steadily improving understanding andconfidence by business clients. Although transformation is not trivial, the tools and expertise are now available toaccelerate the transformation and make IT Services a reality.For more information, please visit ca.com/deliver.Copyright 2006 CA. All rights reserved. All trademarks, trade names, service marks and logos referenced herein belong to their respective companies. This document is for your informationalpurposes only. To the extent permitted by applicable law, CA provides this document AS IS without warranty of any kind, including, without limitation, any implied warranties of merchantability,fitness for a particular purpose, or non-infringement. In no event will CA be liable for any loss or damage, direct or indirect, from the use of this document, including, without limitation, lost profits,business interruption, goodwill or lost data, even if CA is expressly advised of such damages.MP300830506About BearingPointBearingPoint, Inc. (NYSE: BE) is one of the world s largest providers of management and technology consulting services to Global 2000 companiesand government organizations in 60 countries worldwide. Based in McLean, VA, the firm has approximately 17,500 employees and major practiceareas focusing on the Public Services, Financial Services and Commercial Services markets. For nearly 100 years, BearingPoint professionals havebuilt a reputation for knowing what it takes to help clients achieve their goals, and working closely with them to get the job done. For more information,visit the Company s website at BearingPoint.com.About the AuthorMichael Mulicka, Warwick Court, 5 Paternoster Square, London, EC4M 7BP (email@example.com).Mike is Director of Strategy for BearingPoint s Asset, Service, and Demand Management (ASDm) practice. His 28 years in IT have been focused onadvancing the enterprise IT management agenda. He has extensive experience in IT management, strategy and architecture, systems development,integration and delivery, mergers and acquisitions, and outsourcing. Mike oversees ASDm s business and solutions strategy, and does senior leveladvisory and business consulting related to IT management and transformation.ContributorsThe following individuals contributed to this paper: Martin Warner, Keith Rackley, David Hurwitz, Katherine Demacopoulos, and Peter Waterhouse.