You've got all the bells and whistles when it comes to network firewalls and your building's security has a state of the art access system. You've invested in the technology. But what about the staff?
Social engineers, or criminals who take advantage of human behavior to pull of a scam, aren't worried about a badge system. They will just walk right in and confidently ask someone to help them get inside. And that firewall? It won't mean much if your users are tricked into clicking on a malicious link they think came from a Facebook friend.
In this guide, we outline the common tactics social engineers often use, and give you tips on how to ensure your staff is on guard.
What is social engineering?
Social engineering is essentially the art of gaining access to buildings, systems or data by exploiting human psychology, rather than by breaking in or using technical hacking techniques. For example, instead of trying to find a software vulnerability, a social engineer might call an employee and pose as an IT support person, trying to trick the employee into divulging his password.
Famous hacker Kevin Mitnick helped popularise the term 'social engineering' in the '90s, although the idea and many of the techniques have been around as long as there have been scam artists of any sort.
How is my company at risk?
Social engineering has proven to be a very successful way for a criminal to "get inside" your organisation. In the example given above, once a social engineer has a trusted employee's password, he can simply log in and snoop around for sensitive data. Another try might be to scam someone out of an access card or code in order to physically get inside a facility, whether to access data, steal assets or even to harm people.
Chris Nickerson, founder of Lares, a security consultancy, conducts 'red team testing' for clients using social engineering techniques to see where a company is vulnerable. Nickerson detailed how easy it is to get inside a building without question.
In one penetration test, Nickerson used current events, public information available on social network sites, and a $4 Cisco shirt he purchased at a thrift store to prepare for his illegal entry. The shirt helped him convince building reception and other employees that he was a Cisco employee on a technical support visit. Once inside, he was able to give his other team members illegal entry as well. He also managed to drop several malware-laden USBs and hack into the company's network, all within sight of other employees.
How do social engineers pull off their tricks?
Criminals will often take weeks and months getting to know a place before even coming in the door or making a phone call. Their preparation might include finding a company phone list or org chart and researching employees on social networking sites like LinkedIn or Facebook.
But once they are ready, knowing the right thing to say, knowing whom to ask for, and having confidence are often all it takes for an unauthorised person to gain access to a facility or sensitive data, according to Nickerson.
The goal is always to gain the trust of one or more of your employees. In Mind Games: How Social Engineers Win Your Confidence Brian Bushwood, host of the Internet video series Scam School, describes some of the tricks scam artists use to gain that trust, which can vary depending on the communication medium:
- On the phone: A social engineer might call and pretend to be a fellow employee or a trusted outside authority (such as law enforcement or an auditor). According to Sal Lifrieri, a 20-year veteran of the New York City Police Department who now educates companies on social engineering tactics through an organisation called Protective Operations, the criminal tries to make the person feel comfortable with familiarity. They might learn the corporate lingo so the person on the other end thinks they are an insider. Another successful technique involves recording the "hold" music a company uses when callers are left waiting on the phone.
- In the office: "Can you hold the door for me? I don't have my key/access card on me." How often have you heard that in your building? While the person asking may not seem suspicious, this is a very common tactic used by social engineers.
In the same exercise where Nickerson used his thrift shop shirt to get into a building, he had a team member wait outside near the smoking area where employees often went for breaks. Assuming this person was simply a fellow office smoking mate, real employees let him in the back door without question. "A cigarette is a social engineer's best friend," said Nickerson.
This kind of thing goes on all the time, according to Nickerson. The tactic is also known as tailgating. Many people just don't ask others to prove they have permission to be there. But even in places where badges or other proof is required to roam the halls, fakery is easy, he said.
"I usually use some highend photography to print up badges to really look like I am supposed to be in that environment. But they often don't even get checked. I've even worn a badge that said right on it 'Kick me out' and I still was not questioned."
- Online: Social networking sites have opened a whole new door for social engineering scams, according to Graham Cluley, senior technology consultant with security firm Sophos. One of the latest involves the criminal posing as a Facebook "friend." But one can never be certain the person they are talking to on Facebook is actually the real person, he noted. Criminals are stealing passwords, hacking accounts and posing as friends for financial gain.
One popular tactic used recently involved scammers hacking into Facebook accounts and sending a message on Facebook claiming to be stuck in a foreign city and they say they need money.
"The claim is often that they were robbed while traveling and the person asks the Facebook friend to wire money so everything can be fixed," said Cluley.
"If a person has chosen a bad password, or had it stolen through malware, it is easy for a con to wear that cloak of trustability," he said. "Once you have access to a person's account, you can see who their spouse is, where they went on holiday the last time. It is easy to pretend to be someone you are not."
Why do people fall for social engineering techniques?
People are fooled every day by these cons because they haven't been adequately warned about social engineers. As blogger Tom Olzak points out, human behaviour is always the weakest link in any security program. And who can blame them? Without the proper education, most people won't recognise a social engineer's tricks because they are often very sophisticated.
Social engineers use a number of psychological tactics on unsuspecting victims. As Bushwood outlines in Mind Games, successful social engineers are confident and in control of the conversation. They simply act like they belong in a facility, even if they should not be, and their confidence and body posture puts others at ease.
"People running concert security often aren't even looking for badges," said Brushwood. "They are looking for posture. They can always tell who is a fan trying to sneak back and catch a glimpse of the star and who is working the event because they seem like they belong there."
Social engineers will also use humor and compliments in a conversation. They may even give a small gift to a gatekeeping employee, like a receptionist, to curry favour for the future. These are often successful ways to gain a person's trust, said Bushwood, because 'liking' and 'feeling the need to reciprocate' are both fixed-action patterns that humans naturally employ under the right circumstances.
Online, many social engineering scams are taking advantage of both human fear and curiosity. Links that ask "Have you seen this video of you?' are impossible to resist if you aren't aware it is simply a social engineer looking to trap you into clicking on a bad link.
Successful phishing attacks often warn that "Your bank account has been breached! Click here to log in and verify your account." Or "You have not paid for the item you recently won on eBay. Please click here to pay." This ploy plays to a person's concerns about negative impact on their eBay score.
"Since people spend years building eBay feedback score or 'reputation,' people react quickly to this type of email. But, of course, it leads to a phishing site," said Shira Rubinoff, founder of Green Armor Solutions, a security software firm. "Many people use eBay, and users often bid days before a purchase is complete. So, it's not unreasonable for a person to think that he or she has forgotten about a bid they made a week prior."
Recent phishing lures even take advantage of the economic downturn, said Rubinoff. It has not been uncommon for fake emails to turn up that claim to be from human resources which say: 'You have been let go due to a layoff. If you wish to register for severance please register here,' and includes a malicious link.
No one wants to be the person that causes problems in this economy, so any email that appears to be from an employer will likely elicit a response, noted Rubinoff. Lares' Nickerson has also seen cons that use fake employer emails.
"It might say, 'In an effort to cut costs, we are sending W-2 forms electronically this year,'" said Nickerson.
How can I educate my employees to prevent social engineering?
Awareness is the number one defensive measure. Employees should be aware that social engineering exists and also aware of the tactics most commonly used.
Fortunately, social engineering awareness lends itself to storytelling. And stories are much easier to understand and much more interesting than explanations of technical flaws. Chris Nickerson's success posing as a technician is an example of a story that gets the message across in an interesting way. Quizzes and attention grabbing or humorous posters are also effective reminders about not assuming everyone is always who they say they are.
"In my educational sessions, I tell people you always need to be slightly paranoid and anal because you never really know what a person wants out of you," said Lifrieri. The targeting of employees "starts with the receptionist, the guard at the gate who is watching a parking lot. That's why training has to get to the staff."